A team of researchers from Google, led by John Martinis, first demonstrated the so-called "quantum superiority," writes New Time.
News of this was first heard at the end of September. But the publication in the scientific journal Nature appeared only now.
"As far as we know, this experiment marks the first calculation that can only be performed on a quantum processor," says a Google article. A Google research article titled "Quantum Excellence Using a Programmable Superconducting Processor."
Google’s quantum computer was reportedly able to perform the calculation — proving the randomness of the numbers generated by the random number generator — in 3 minutes and 20 seconds, while a traditional supercomputer would take about 10,000 years. This actually means that computing cannot be done by a traditional computer, making Google the first company to demonstrate quantum superiority.
Despite reaching the milestone, it is likely that quantum computers capable of solving practical problems are still far away. However, after development, computers are expected to be of enormous importance for areas as diverse as cryptography, chemistry, artificial intelligence, and machine learning. Google expects the power of quantum computers to grow at "double exponential speed."
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Quantum computing uses qubits or quantum bits. These are the basic units of information used by quantum computers. Unlike ordinary bits that store data as 1 or 0, qubits take advantage of a quantum phenomenon known as superposition. This means that they essentially exist as 1 and 0 at the same time.
The advantage of this in computing is that it exponentially increases the amount of information that you can process. A pair of qubits, which can exist as 1 or 0, can embody four possible states. Three qubits may contain eight. But three hundred qubits may contain more states than atoms in the universe.
Earlier, Google announced that it hoped to achieve quantum superiority by the end of 2017, however, it developed a 72-qubit system was too difficult to control. After that, Google developed a 53-qubit design called Sycamore, which was used to achieve a recent breakthrough.